At the Central ethnic work Conference on September 29th, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that "the relationship between the Chinese nation and all ethnic groups is the relationship between a big family and its members, and the relationship between all ethnic groups is the relationship between different members of a big family." and put forward the great idea of "Chinese Dream to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation". However, the understanding of "what kind of nation the Chinese nation is" is not consistent, and even there are great differences. In the 21st century, with the accelerating process of global integration, China is not what it used to be, and its economic situation, social structure and interest pattern are not only different from those of 100 years ago, but also different from those of half a century ago. For the accurate recognition of the Chinese nation, we should not only look at history, but also be based on the rise of the country and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.