Today's Chinese nation is closer to the goal of great rejuvenation than at any other time in history, which is a major historical judgment made by the 19th CPC National Congress. On this basis, the connotation of the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics is defined around the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and the future goal of national development is determined around the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. the historical mission of the Communist Party of China is also discussed around the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. At the same time, the analysis and discussion of the major issues of the party and the country have changed from the three dimensions of the political party, the state and the people to the four dimensions of the political party, the state, the people and the nation. The first session of the 13th National people's Congress has written the "great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation" into the Constitution, and the historical status and mission of the Chinese nation have been highlighted unprecedentedly. Today's refocus on the Chinese nation has led to a comprehensive examination of the Chinese nation. From the perspective of reality, in order to give full play to the function of the Chinese nation in condensing the consensus and strength of all the people, in promoting national unity and stability, and in achieving national development goals, it is not only necessary but also urgent to promote the cohesion and integration of the Chinese nation through effective national construction. However, there is an obvious contradiction between "due" and "existing" in the construction of the Chinese nation. Such a realistic contradiction highlights the major problem that the historical task of the construction of the Chinese nation has not been completed.